Index categories: These are categories in which the objects are essentially elements of a partially ordered set, and there exists at most one morphism between two objects. One example would be , where Hom iff .
Let be an index category. A functor is said to be indexed by . What does such a functor look like? If this functor is fully faithful, then will also be an index category. However, even if it is neither faithful nor full, there is some structure that is imposed. For example, if is , then we can index a subset of objects in , and ensure that morphisms exist between all such indexed objects (mapping objects of lower indices to those with higher indices).
Limit: Let be indexed by . Then the limit is an object such that there exists a morphism between and every object (including itself), and if and are two such objects with Hom (remember that is the functor between and ), then the three morphisms under consideration commute.
So what exactly is happening here? It is easy to see that is the initial object in . For example, let Set be a functor which maps , and the morhism is mapped to the morphism . Then or is the unique limit.
Similarly, the colimit is the final object of , where is any partially ordered set.
Filtered set: A nonempty partially ordered set is said to be filtered is for any , there exists a such that and . For example, is fitered, and so is any subset of it. However, if , and is the only relation we know, then this is not a filtered poset (partially ordered set).
Adjoints: Two covariant functors and , where are categories, are considered to be adjoint if there is a natural bijection Mor Mor, and for all in we require
Philosophy behind adjoint functors: These ensure that at least the set of morhisms between objects (both in the domain and range) are “isomorphic” to each other, whilst not being concerned about the objects themselves.